Christine Cho ’22


Computer Science

Project Title

Mapping and Modeling Dynamics of MCR-1 and NDM-1

Presentation Link

View Christine 's Presentation

Certificate(s): Statistics and Machine Learning, Technology and Society

I studied the spread of MCR-1 and NDM-1, genes that make animals and humans resistant to last-resort antibiotics. Outbreaks of these genes have been detected in countries other than the genes’ origin countries, making their spread a cause of great concern. I reviewed the scientific literature to compile a dataset of outbreaks and noted factors such as the date and location of each outbreak. I then created global outbreak maps to visualize the spread of these genes over time. Finally, I created models using stochastic simulations and statistical methods to estimate parameters in order to obtain information about within-country and within-continent dynamics. I also started to run simulations of the international spread of these genes. I learned new technical skills such as mathematical modeling and also obtained greater insight into the research process and how research can catalyze change in science and policy. Because of this project, I want to continue learning about the applications of data analysis and statistics.

Internship Year


Project Category

Water and Health


ETH Zurich; Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy- Princeton, New Jersey; Zurich, Switzerland


Ramanan Laxminarayan, Senior Research Scholar, Princeton Environmental Institute; Thomas Van Boeckel, Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich