Annie Song ’21


Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Project Title

Mapping Antimicrobial Resistance in Humans in the Indian Subcontinent

Certificate(s): Applications of Computing, Global Health and Health Policy

I worked on mapping the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in people across India and surrounding countries. I first conducted a literature review and cleaned external data, then ran statistical models with covariates such as precipitation and proximity to major cities. I relied upon kriging, a spatial interpolation method, in order to use discrete AMR data from published studies to estimate AMR values at unknown points. I ran multiple models and combined their predictions using stacked generalization. Ultimately, I mapped the predicted AMR values, which allowed us to quickly identify different regions of high and low AMR. I learned and applied new knowledge about computer modeling, ensemble learning and spatial interpolation. As I am interested in the environmental contributors to health, the experience and technical skills I gained will help me with my junior- and senior-year academic work.

Internship Year


Project Category

Water and Health


ETH Zurich; Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy - Princeton, New Jersey; Zurich, Switzerland


Ramanan Laxminarayan, Senior Research Scholar, Princeton Environmental Institute; Thomas Van Boeckel, Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich