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Meet Our Past Interns

Sustainability

Project:
Washington Stream Geomorphology and the Local Watershed
Organization/Location:
Princeton Environmental Institute
Adviser(s):
Eileen Zerba

This summer, I was an intern in Dr. Eileen Zerba’s lab with several other students working on the continued monitoring of Princeton University water quality. Each of us also worked on individual projects which we developed over the course of the internship. We sampled Washington Stream, Elm Stream, and Carnegie Lake. We then ran nutrient analysis on these samples back in the lab. For the third component of this internship, I focused on compiling the geomorphology of Washington Stream based on data gathered through several classes projects from the last few years to use as a pre-restoration baseline.

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Project:
Policy Solutions for Marine Debris
Organization/Location:
Ocean Conservancy
Adviser(s):


I spent my time as a PEI intern in the Government Affairs Division of Ocean Conservancy, in Washington, D.C. My primary objective was to perform extensive research into the ecological health impacts of marine debris and the policy currently in place to address the problem. As part of my internship, I wrote a research paper with my findings and suggestions for improvements and additions for future policy. My paper will be used by the Ocean Conservancy for advocating an updated marine debris policy at a symposium in DC this October of 2010. I also spent some of my time helping in other government affairs issues, primarily working on the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

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Project:
The Ongoing Push for U.S. Climate Legislation
Organization/Location:
Environmental Defense Fund
Adviser(s):
Carol Andress

As an intern for Environmental Defense Fund’s (EDF) National Climate Campaign, I worked to support the passage of clean energy and climate legislation in the U.S. Congress. I developed eight one-page profiles of small clean energy businesses around the country that are creating jobs and helping people save money on their energy costs. Through discussions with the leaders of these companies, I portrayed how they would grow and benefit from the passage of climate legislation. I also wrote four op-eds calling for action on climate which were submitted by the business leaders to local newspapers. I researched all the bills related to clean energy and/or climate that had been introduced in the 111th Congress and compiled summaries of their provisions, supporters, and status. I also completed miscellaneous research for EDF publications, such as how climate change will impact agriculture in the U.S.

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Project:
Mercury in Carnegie Lake
Organization/Location:
Princeton Environmental Institute
Adviser(s):
Francois Morel

For my internship, I studied the effect of plankton bloom density on concentrations of mercury in Carnegie Lake, Princeton. Working with a team of students lead by Dr. Eileen Zerba, I collected samples from the lake and brought them back to Professor Francois Morel’s lab in the Department of Geosciences for analysis. In addition to analyzing the levels of mercury and methylmercury in plankton, I also measured mercury in water, sediment, macroinvertebrates, and fish, to get a full profile of mercury cycling in the lake.

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Project:
Huamanzaña, Engineers Without Borders
Organization/Location:

Adviser(s):


In August 2010, an Engineers Without Borders (EWB) team of five Princeton students traveled to Huamanzaña, a small farming village nestled in the foothills of northern Peru, to perform maintenance work on previously established projects and build community ownership and empowerment. The team has had a working relationship with this town since 2005, and after implementing projects ranging from bathrooms and smokeless stoves to solar electricity and water distribution, the group focused this year on securing the long-term sustainability of these endeavors by developing responsibility within the town and helping community members take ownership of the projects themselves. With this goal in mind, the team initiated the formation of a water committee to oversee maintenance of the water system, taught lessons on the importance of bacteria and hygiene to schoolchildren, and helped repair various aspects of the old projects, from replacing stove chimneys to installing new water piping. Because this trip also represented the last year of EWB’s presence in Huamanzaña, the team visited several other sites around the La Libertad region in search of future potential projects.

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Project:
Princeton-BIOS Summer Internship Program
Organization/Location:

Adviser(s):
Dr. F. Gerald Plumley, BIOS

I spent my summer as an intern at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (BIOS) working with Dr. Andreas Andersson. I researched the effects of ocean acidification on coral reefs. Specifically, I compared two methods for measuring coral growth rates: the buoyant weighing and alkalinity anomaly methods. For my experiments, I used samples of the coral species Diploria strigosa.

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Project:
Investigating the Role of Adaptation to Hypoxia in Sea Urchin Longevity
Organization/Location:
Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (BIOS), Bermuda
Adviser(s):
Andrea Bodnar and Jeannette Loram

The Restore America's Estuaries (RAE) Policy Internship approached issues of environmental conservation from a policy making perspective. Specific to coastal and estuarine habitat restoration, the internship sought to improve the connections between environmental responsibility and executive and legislative policies. Specific responsibilities in the internship involved legislative advocacy to pass environmental bills, researching and drafting issue-specific white papers on human health implications of estuarine degradation, fundraising for Gulf Oil Spill funds, and outreach to other environmental partners in nonprofit and government sectors. Most of the projects involved improving the relationship between Restore America's Estuaries and other executive government agencies. RAE's stakeholder status on coastal issues gives it the opportunity to provide expertise about environmental issues to agencies such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Fish and Wildlife Service. This internship was an eye-opening educational experience that provided me valuable insights on the non-scientific aspects of environmental conservation.

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Project:
Investigating the Role of Adaptation to Hypoxia in Sea Urchin Longevity
Organization/Location:
Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (BIOS), Bermuda
Adviser(s):
Francois More

My internship at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (BIOS) focused on using a genomics approach to study sea urchin longevity. Aging refers to a progressive decline in physiological function and fertility that ultimately leads to increased mortality risk. The red sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus franciscanus) demonstrates none of these characteristics throughout its long lifespan—up to 200 years. In contrast, the closely related Strongylocentrotus purpuratus lives on average for 50 years, while another sea urchin species, Lytechinus variegatus, lives for only 3-4 years. The longest-lived species displays an age-related increase in expression of a protein called hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α), which allows animal cells to adapt to low oxygen conditions. HIF-1α also induces a metabolic switch that reduces the production of reactive oxygen species, which is thought to minimize damage to cellular components and ultimately delay or eliminate aging. My job was to confirm this expression pattern on the ribonucleic acid (RNA) level using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and on the protein level using western blots.

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Project:
Offshore Drilling in Belize
Organization/Location:
Oceana, Belize
Adviser(s):
Ann McCauley

I worked with Oceana on their campaign to ban offshore drilling in Belize, a country that is especially invested in the health of its pristine coast, as it supports two of the country’s main sources of income: fisheries and tourism. We researched the environmental effects of offshore drilling on reef and mangrove ecosystems, and led a coalition of non-govermental organizations (NGOs) in Belize that banded together to educate the public and government about the dangers of offshore drilling and call for a ban on offshore drilling.

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Project:
Huamanzaña, Engineers Without Borders
Organization/Location:

Adviser(s):


In August 2010, an Engineers Without Borders (EWB) team of five Princeton students traveled to Huamanzaña, a small farming village nestled in the foothills of northern Peru, to perform maintenance work on previously established projects and build community ownership and empowerment. The team has had a working relationship with this town since 2005, and after implementing projects ranging from bathrooms and smokeless stoves to solar electricity and water distribution, the group focused this year on securing the long-term sustainability of these endeavors by developing responsibility within the town and helping community members take ownership of the projects themselves. With this goal in mind, the team initiated the formation of a water committee to oversee maintenance of the water system, taught lessons on the importance of bacteria and hygiene to schoolchildren, and helped repair various aspects of the old projects, from replacing stove chimneys to installing new water piping. Because this trip also represented the last year of EWB’s presence in Huamanzaña, the team visited several other sites around the La Libertad region in search of future potential projects.

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Project:
Community Forestry with RECOFTC: Protecting People and Forests
Organization/Location:
RECOFTC - Center for People and Forests, Thailand
Adviser(s):
Deborah Nord

My summer internship, funded by PEI and facilitated by Princeton in Asia, was a position in the communications department of the International Organization RECOFTC – the Center for People and Forests. The internship lasted eight weeks and was based out of their main office in Bangkok, Thailand. RECOFTC deals primarily with community forestry training and project facilitation. During my time there I was responsible for organizing their photo library, putting together an interactive office calendar, working on launching their new website, and most importantly copy editing several of the reports and articles that came through our office for publication. Most of my time was spent editing the text of publications and finding photos to accompany them. I also spent one week doing field research in Cambodia collecting success stories in three villages in two different provinces in relation to an ongoing community forestry project in the country under the management of RECOFTC. Although RECOFTC operates throughout Southeast Asia, it has remained a fairly small organization, which provided me with many opportunities to see the efforts of my work in our finished products. The success stories I collected and the photos I took in my fieldwork are going to become part of a publication on the project in Cambodia. Overall it was a wonderful experience and an incredible learning opportunity.

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Project:
Princeton in Asia Summer of Service 2010
Organization/Location:
Princeton in Asia, China
Adviser(s):
Chris Schlegel and Anastasia Vrachnos

For Princeton in Asia's fifth Summer of Service program, ten Princeton undergraduate students traveled to Hunan province in China this past summer to teach in an English immersion program for college students at Jishou University’s Normal College. The city of Jishou is a small city that has grown tremendously over the years and continues to experience economic, lifestyle, and environmental changes that are similar to many cities across China today. While surveying Jishou and neighboring natural attractions in Hunan, the Princeton teachers incorporated lessons, discussions, and activities concerning the environment in both classroom and extracurricular settings. Within the Summer of Service program, we organized a Princeton-in-Jishou Earth Day, which was a day of promoting environmental awareness during which students shared projects, videos, and presentations they had created throughout the program addressing Jishou’s environmental issues such as water pollution, food and agriculture, waste, conservation, and alternative energy options. Students were also encouraged to develop ideas of their own for raising environmental awareness in their communities, and environmental scholarships were to students who had developed outstanding proposals and initiatives with strong ecological and educational components. We coordinated additional activities to cultivate environmental consciousness and conservation efforts such as an Outdoors Club, which gave Jishou students opportunities to share the natural and man-made surroundings of the city to the Princeton teachers. The exchanges between Princeton and Jishou students and opportunities to develop initiatives to support environmental education and action in Jishou made for a motivating and meaningful summer of service in Asia.

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Project:
Energy Education and Research Intern
Organization/Location:
ISLES, Inc., Trenton, NJ
Adviser(s):
Julia Taylor

This summer I worked on energy related initiatives as an intern at Isles, a nonprofit community development and environmnetal organization based in Trenton, New Jersey. I performed research for a pilot program that Isles plans to conduct beginning in the fall of 2010. The pilot program, to be conducted in low-income households over a period of six months, will seek to assess the impact of real-time feedback on household energy consumptions levels using energy monitors. I contributed to this project by reviewing existing literature and studies on the effect of various forms of feedback on energy consumption levels. I developed and presented a multi-stage proposal for the implementation of the pilot program and reviewed possible technologies to be used in this project. It was particularly exciting to work on this project as few pilot programs of this nature have been conducted in low-income households. I was also involved in energy education initiatives. I had the opportunity to teach Trenton students at a summer camp about different types of energy such as renewable versus nonrenewable sources and ways to conserve energy. Finally, I was involved in the preliminary stages of assembling a database of abandoned buildings in Trenton. This work entailed field work in which I reported on the conditions of buildings within the Old Trenton Neighborhood. This internship was a great introduction to the unique energy and housing challenges that the city of Trenton faces.

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Project:
The Environment and Community Health of Trenton, NJ
Organization/Location:
ISLES, Inc., Trenton, NJ
Adviser(s):
Lorin Romeo Romay

As part of the Isles Environment and Community Health team, my main responsibility was to help care for the children's garden and the 9 school gardens Isles has started throughout Trenton. Most of my time was spent establishing the new Tucker Street garden adjacent to Isles' Youthbuild alternative high school. Throughout the summer, it went from a pile of dirt to a thriving garden producing pounds and pounds of vegetables for the community. In the afternoons, I did a variety of different tasks. I spent some time promoting a farmer's market that Isles helped start that brings local produce to inner city residents with little to no other access to fresh produce. Along with another intern, I compiled lesson plans to help teachers incorporate their school gardens into their curriculum. I also helped with environmental education programs for elementary aged children in after school programs and camps.

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Project:
Strategies for Aquifer Recharge
Organization/Location:
National Institute of Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics, Trieste, Italy
Adviser(s):
Daniel Nieto-Yabar

At the National Institute of Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics in Trieste, Italy, I worked as an intern for the Department of Geophysics. For my main project, I researched methods of aquifer recharge in the Friuli-Venezia Giullia region. Due to changing climates, increaseing agriculture, and an overall decreasing ground water level, aquifer recharge has become a necessity in Northern Italy. My project focused on aquifer levels, composition, and soil chemistry in Torrate, a test area set on the region's resurgence line. Here, seismic, electromagnetic, and geochemical modeling is conducted in order to characterize the aquifer system and determine the best method of aquifer recharge.

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Project:
Our Earth Work and Play
Organization/Location:
Our Earth
Adviser(s):
John Ullman

As an intern with OurEarth.org this summer, I joined a dynamic group of other interns to work on a huge variety of projects. In the first few weeks, we all mounted an enormous research project to update the organization's directory of U.S. environmental college and university programs. Later, we split into several teams. I worked on the business team, contacting web development and marketing companies to ask their help with OurEarth's website and, in the last few weeks, brainstorming for OurEarth's business plan. Additionally, I led a team of about ten interns on a somewhat unusual project: the creation of multimedia (i.e., video) for OurEarth.org's application to the Pepsi Refresh grant program, and for general publicity. I never expected to write scripts, shoot film, and record vocals during my internship this summer, but it was a lot of fun - especially our video shoot in Fort Tryon Park in Manhattan, at which my green-haired photo was taken. The video is available at the following url (http://www.refresheverything.com/ourearth).

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Project:
An Assessment of the Efficiency of Water Trading Markets in the Murray-Darling Basin
Organization/Location:
University of Melbourne, Australia
Adviser(s):
Snow Barlow

Under the guidance of Professor Snow Barlow of the Primary Industries and Climate Change Center at the University of Melbourne, I investigated water-trading markets in the Murray Darling-Basin, the major food bowl of Australia. I studied the shortcomings of the current water trading scheme, focusing on the role the market plays in influencing decision making by members of the water trading system. In addition, I conducted research on the role of the government and the consumer in shaping water-trading markets. My findings suggest a reassessment of the role water trading plays in the context of climate change in Australia and elsewhere, and the manner in which a government should consider the implementation of water trading markets. Water trading functions as a risk management tool for water users, allowing ease of entry and exit from the system, especially during a period of extended drought, is a valuable market mechanism. As a tool for controlling water usage and the effects of climate change, water trading has great potential. Although a basic market is present, it lacks the defined structure and consistent rules necessary for the efficient operation of the system. By evaluating current and past practices during my internship, I was able to suggest a more efficient system.

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Project:
Huamanzaña, Engineers Without Borders
Organization/Location:

Adviser(s):


In August 2010, an Engineers Without Borders (EWB) team of five Princeton students traveled to Huamanzaña, a small farming village nestled in the foothills of northern Peru, to perform maintenance work on previously established projects and build community ownership and empowerment. The team has had a working relationship with this town since 2005, and after implementing projects ranging from bathrooms and smokeless stoves to solar electricity and water distribution, the group focused this year on securing the long-term sustainability of these endeavors by developing responsibility within the town and helping community members take ownership of the projects themselves. With this goal in mind, the team initiated the formation of a water committee to oversee maintenance of the water system, taught lessons on the importance of bacteria and hygiene to schoolchildren, and helped repair various aspects of the old projects, from replacing stove chimneys to installing new water piping. Because this trip also represented the last year of EWB’s presence in Huamanzaña, the team visited several other sites around the La Libertad region in search of future potential projects.

See Presentation
Project:
Aesthetics and Motivations for Land Preservation
Organization/Location:
D&R Greenway Land Trust
Adviser(s):
Jim Amon

As the land stewardship intern at D&R Greenway Land Trust, I worked with the directors of stewardship on various land preserves in central New Jersey to build and preserve flourishing, healthy, native ecological communities. We worked towards this goal through ecological restoration, cultivation and care of native plants, removal of nonnative invasive plant species, trail building and improvement, and the monitoring of properties and conservation easements. I also worked with another intern on an independent project focused on using geocaching as a tool for education and public involvement in the natural world. The project involved the creation of a special trail with informational geocaches to educate hikers about native New Jersey forests.

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Project:
Á La Carbon: Sustainable Dining at Princeton University
Organization/Location:
Dining Services, Princeton University
Adviser(s):
Stuart Orefice

As the Sustainability Intern for Princeton Dining Services, I worked with the purchasing department to update the database of the university’s total sustainable food purchases for the 2009-2010 school year—including purchases in the categories of local, organic, fair trade, humane, socially just, and conventional. We then used this data to update the university’s sustainable dining website. In addition, I worked with two other students to develop an IPhone application which will allow students to calculate and track the carbon dioxide equivalence (CO2e) emission of their food choices in residential and retail dining areas. For this project, I researched information about the methods for calculation of CO2e emissions in all stages of food production and learned about the negative impact on the environment of the various greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions released at each stage of food production. When finalized, the application will include additional features such as a university map with the GPS locations and hours of operations for the various residential and retail dining facilities, locations of the snack and beverage vending machines around campus, and the ability to display coupons and promotions (paper-free) which will be redeemable in select University dining locations.

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Project:
Pre-Restoration Assessment of Washington Road Stream and Carnegie Lake
Organization/Location:
Princeton Environmental Intitute
Adviser(s):
Eileen Zerba

One of the goals of Princeton University's Sustainability Master Plan is Resource Conservation, which identifies stormwater management and domestic water conservation as primary strategies for improving the University’s environmental stewardship. Within the confines of this plan, Washington Road Stream is currently slated for a restoration in the fall of 2010. This summer, Princeton Environmental Institute underwent the final phase of its assessment of Washington Road Stream and its effect on Carnegie Lake. This summer, I joined a group of interns to participate in the assessment and study of the stream and lake as a continuation of research conducted in the past few summers and during a spring 2010 course (ENV 340: Environmental Challenges and Sustainable Solutions). That research covered four main areas of study: riparian zone health, measurement of harmful nutrients, geomorphology assessment, and data collection (using YSI instrument) concerning changes in water quality. These phases were completed and will be compiled in a master report to be submitted to the University. This assessment will allow the restoration team to address any concerns raised based upon our data and conclusions. This pre-restoration data can also be useful in post-restoration research of Washington Road Stream and the surrounding watershed.

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Project:
U.S. EPA - Office of Regional Counsel
Organization/Location:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Adviser(s):
Senem Aslan

In this internship, I worked with the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Office of Regional Counsel. In particular, I assisted both a civil investigator and the Deputy Regional Counsel in researching and drafting reports. In the first half of the summer, I researched a defending company's corporate structure and history, providing information to the Civil Investigator. In the second half, I aided the Deputy Regional Counsel in researching a new method of natural gas drilling; ultimately making a PowerPoint presentation that was presented to top federal attorneys in D.C. The experience taught me much about working in the federal government and in the field of law in general.

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Project:
Does China Care About the Environment?
Organization/Location:
Natural Resources Defense Council, China
Adviser(s):


China has an infamous environmental record. In 2006 China surpassed the U.S. in carbon dioxide emissions, and in 2009 China surpassed the U.S. in energy consumption. Not to mention, the visibility in the streets of Beijing sometimes doesn't even reach 100 meters. This summer, I interned at the Natural Resources Defense Council in Beijing, China. The focus of my research was threefold: carbon capture and storage, smart growth, and rare earth mining. In particular, I investigated the feasibility of applying fairly standard environmental policies in these three areas to the situation in China. In the process of doing so, I contributed to a Brookings Institution paper, went on a site visit in Inner Mongolia, and conversed with researchers from all over the world. Working at NRDC, the breadth of my learning experience came from my colleagues, and thus extended well beyond these three topics. The main lesson that I took from working at the American NGO was that you can't just take western environmental policies and apply them to China. Things don't work like that. Not only is the political system different, but the entire mindset of the leadership down to the ordinary citizen is different.

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Project:
Time-Varying Gravity Models from GRACE Date over NW Australia
Organization/Location:
Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Australia
Adviser(s):
Paul Tregoning

Time-varying gravity models of the earth are useful for understanding climate change, providing, among other results, insights on drought and ice-melt processes. For my summer internship, I used the gravity field models developed by GRGS (Groupe de Recherche en Géodesie Spatiale) from GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite data to graph the change in gravity signal over Australia from 2002 to the present in order to investigate a large negative gravity signal over the sparsely populated northwest of Australia. It is the largest gravity signal in Australia, larger even than the ongoing drought in the Murray-Darling Basin, and its causes are poorly understood. Possible geophysical causes include underground aquifer depletion or seismic activity/postglacial rebound. Possible non-geophysical causes include instrument error, analysis error, or contamination of the signal from other processes. Although I was not able to find a definitive cause, I did find that the current hydrological model (GLDAS) and the atmospheric-pressure dealiasing product used by GRGS were unlikely to be significant contributors to the gravity signal.

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Health

Project:
Malaria Control In Liberia
Organization/Location:
National Malaria Control Program, Liberia
Adviser(s):
Kristina Graff, Associate Director, Center for Health and Wellbeing, Woodrow Wilson School

I interned at Liberia’s National Malaria Control Program. I managed the documentation and preparation for Liberia’s revised five-year strategic plan for malaria control. As part of the core technical team writing a proposal for the Global Fund for to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, I also developed and updated several sections of the program – particularly those that dealt with economic evaluation and value for money. In addition, I participated in technical meetings, stakeholder consultations, proposal-writing sessions and a major national health conference.

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Project:
Infanta Malaria Prevention Foundation
Organization/Location:
Lois Okudzeto, The Infanta Malaria Prevention Foundation
Adviser(s):


I interned in Accra, Ghana, with the Infanta Malaria Prevention Foundation, an NGO that works to prevent and treat malaria in children and pregnant women, the most vulnerable populations to malaria. We performed a variety of tasks for the foundation, including several outreach programs. We tested women and children for malaria and provided medicine to those who tested positive. We also distributed insecticide-treated bed nets for malaria prevention. In addition to the outreach programs, we shadowed doctors in the pediatric ward of a public hospital in Accra. We also worked on a project for the Grameen Foundation developing short messages about malaria to be incorporated into a health text message alert system.

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Project:
Defending the Right to Health: A Summer at Human Rights Watch
Organization/Location:
Human Rights Watch
Adviser(s):
João Biehl, Susan Dod Brown Professor of Anthropology. Co-Director, Program in Global Health and Health Policy

I was an intern in the Health and Human Rights Division of Human Rights Watch in New York City. I was given a fascinating look into the crucial work that HRW is doing to defend the human right to health, particularly among marginalized populations like women, prisoners, children, drug users, and the LGBT community. I assisted with research initiatives about transgender health, access to palliative care, legislation that criminalizes being HIV-positive, lead poisoning, drug rehabilitation programs, and access to HIV treatment. I also tracked press coverage of the department’s work and helped prepare presentations and reports for publication. This opportunity taught me a great deal about the inner workings of the organization, the intricacies of global health and the arguments surrounding the protection of the universal right to health.

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Project:
The Arts of Healthcare in Brazil: Alternative Approaches to Health Promotion and Education
Organization/Location:
Associacão Brasileira Interdisciplinar de AIDS (ABIA) - Brazilian Interdisciplinary AIDS Association
Adviser(s):
João Biehl, Susan Dod Brown Professor of Anthropology. Co-Director, Program in Global Health and Health Policy

I carried out an independent research project in Brazil with ABIA’s Companhia da Saúde, a group of adolescent performers who use street theater, song and dance, colorful costumes and even some circus techniques to present messages of AIDS prevention and solidarity in a fun and creative way. I spent five weeks observing rehearsals, taking photographs, and conducting interviews with the members of the company and its directors. This was my first formal field research experience, and one I found both interesting and rewarding. I am excited to continue analysis of my findings and to write more about my work with ABIA.

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Project:
Dinner in Huamanzaña:Exploring Rural Peruvian Diet and its Implications for Health in the Region
Organization/Location:
Princeton Engineers Without Borders, Huamanzaña, Peru
Adviser(s):
João Biehl, Susan Dod Brown Professor of Anthropology. Co-Director, Program in Global Health and Health Policy

I did an independent study of regional dietary practices and beliefs regarding food and health in Huamanzaña, Peru, a town of about 120 people located along the country’s northern coast. My goal was to explore possible connections between the rural Peruvian diet and health in the region, as well as to determine some of the cultural, educational, and practical factors shaping their food choices over time. This primary data on nutritional knowledge, common health problems and culinary perspectives will support my further exploration into the causes and consequences of the food practices I observed, and help me determine the potential for the Peruvian government and various non-governmental organizations to improve regional health through nutrition.

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Project:
An Analysis of the Economical Costs and Trends of Treating Adults versus Children at Project Alajuelita
Organization/Location:
Foundation for International Medical Relief of Children (FIMRC)
Adviser(s):
Jeffrey Hammer, Lecturer in Public and International Affairs, Woodrow Wilson School. Charles and Marie Robertson, Visiting Professor in Economic Development

I worked for the Foundation for International Medical Relief of Children in Costa Rica, addressing the question of whether a children’s free clinic should continue to serve adult patients. With a maximum allowance of 15 patients per day and care offered on a first-come, first-serve basis, the increasingly popular clinic worried that adults had begun crowding out children in need of care. My project took into account the clinic’s history, including its initial purpose and the reasons that it originally accepted adult patients. By calculating the costs of treating adults versus children, we were better able to analyze the economical consequences of treating adults.

Project:
Mental Health Among Kono's War Wounded: Chronic Pain, PTSD and the Trauma of Everyday Life
Organization/Location:
Global Action Foundation/National Organization for Wellbody
Adviser(s):
João Biehl, Susan Dod Brown Professor of Anthropology. Co-Director, Program in Global Health and Health Policy

I worked in rural Sierra Leone at the Global Action Foundation’s Wellbody clinic, which provides free healthcare to war-wounded civilians. For my internship I conducted a mental-health needs assessment of amputees to determine the prevalence of PTSD-like symptoms and develop a potential intervention. My research showed that a truly effective psychosocial program should address the 'trauma of everyday life' first and foremost in order to improve quality of life. I designed a program that involves heavily-monitored microloans, financial and life coaching, and psychological and family counseling by trained community members. I believe this will be a successful program to help alleviate the destitute poverty and I hope it will be piloted within the next year.

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Project:
Exploring the Potential of HA Ceramic Water Filtration, Solar Power and Bamboo Material as Viable Appropriate Technologies
Organization/Location:
Mpala Research Centre
Adviser(s):
Wole Soboyejo, Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and the Princeton Institute for the Science and Technology of Materials

The purpose of my internship was to gain an understanding of how appropriate technologies can be used to improve quality of life, particularly in global health. I spent eight weeks conducting lab research at Princeton on a ceramic water filter, in addition to analyzing the strength of bamboo materials. I gained an understanding of how the water filters were made, their history, and how hydroxyapatite (HA) can remove fluoride. I conducted flow rate testing and other activities to prepare me for field application of the filters in Kenya. I spent three weeks in Kenya continuing the ceramic water filtration research, while installing two solar charging stations in the villages there. I visited a ceramic filter factory in Limuru, while running daily performance tests on three types of filters.

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Project:
Kubadilisha Tabi: Facilitating Positive HIV Behavior Change through Theatre in Nakuru, Kenya
Organization/Location:
REPACTED, Kenya
Adviser(s):
Mahiri Mwita, Lecturer in Princeton Institute for International and Regional Studies. Bryan T. Grenfell, Director, Health Grand Challenge Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Public Affairs, Woodrow Wilson School Kristina M. Graff, Associate

I interned with REPACTED, a community-based organization in Nakuru, Kenya that uses an innovative form of community theatre called "Magnet Theatre" to facilitate positive behavior change in relation to HIV. I worked as a member of the troupe, an office assistant, and a blogger in order to learn as much as possible about the organization. In this position, I accompanied REPACTED on community theatre outreaches, developed the organization's blog, and wrote several funding applications and project reports. I also assisted with my professor’s research on the effectiveness of REPACTED's programs in the informal sector workplace by carrying out surveys throughout the sites where the organization has performed.

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Project:
Improving Accessibility to Clean Water and Healthy Foods
Organization/Location:
Foundation for International Medical Relief of Children (FIMRC)
Adviser(s):
Jeffrey Hammer, Lecturer in Public and International Affairs, Woodrow Wilson School. Charles and Marie Robertson, Visiting Professor in Economic Development

I worked for the Foundation for International Medical Relief of Children in El Salvador. My projects targeted water and food in order to help my host community’s inhabitants live a healthier lifestyle, prevent the spread of diseases and fight malnutrition. I helped implement a water purification system at the local school, aimed at decreasing the persistent rate of water-borne illnesses affecting children. To help with nutrition and address the need for more well-balanced diets, we arranged a Healthy Foods Festival attended by over 250 community members. Finally, I did research on a plant called Moringa oleifera, the seeds of which can be used to purify drinking water at virtually no cost. The Foundation is now considering this as one option to help make potable water an affordable possibility for the community.

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Project:
Ethnographic Fieldwork on HIV/AIDS Community Health Work in Kono, Sierra Leone
Organization/Location:
Global Action Foundation, Sierra Leone
Adviser(s):
João Biehl, Susan Dod Brown Professor of Anthropology. Co-Director, Program in Global Health and Health Policy

I worked in rural Sierra Leone at the Global Action Foundation’s Wellbody clinic, which provides free healthcare to war-wounded civilians. I conducted an ethnographic study on its new HIV/AIDS Community-Based health outreach program, examining the impact that home-based care makes on treating people living with HIV/AIDS and on the outlooks and the daily activities of community-health workers. Through my research I find that although the clinic offers free access to HIV/AIDS, social stigma and other factors prevent full utilization of the free clinical services. My research plans to help show what the work of community-health workers entails and how home-based care attempts to answer the challenges of treating HIV/AIDS.

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Project:
Social Welfare Impacts of Suggested Retail Prices Under Uncertainty
Organization/Location:

Adviser(s):
Ramanan Laxminarayan, Associate Research Scholar, Princeton Environmental Institute

I worked at Resources for the Future in Washington, DC, where I conducted research on the social welfare impacts of suggested retail prices. I plan to develop my project into a senior thesis and eventually publish a paper in an economic journal. Each intern was granted a large amount of freedom, which taught us to independently pursue a fruitful research project from start to finish. We also attended various events hosted by Resources for the Future such as conferences and lecture series.

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Project:
Phenotypic Characterization of HIV-1 Virulence Using Recombinant Virus
Organization/Location:
Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain
Adviser(s):
David Botstein, Anthony B. Evnin ‘62 Professor of Genomics. Professor of Molecular Biology and the Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics. Director, Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics

I did a laboratory research internship at Instituto de Salud Carlos III in Spain. I worked in the AIDS Immunopathology Unit, which develops new and efficient systems to analyze the characteristics and factors of virulence in viral strains from HIV-infected patients such as tropism, replicative capacity, drug resistance and susceptibility to neutralising antibodies. These in vitro models are based on the generation of replicative-competent chimeras carrying different genomic fragments from HIV-1 that have been obtained from plasma of patients, and they are useful for the screening and characterization of the mechanism of action of new antiretrovirals and new approaches using this experimental model are currently being developed in the laboratory. In particular, I helped with analyzing the mechanism of action of a CCR5 antagonist (Maraviroc) and the mechanism of resistance of viral strains resistant to this drug.

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Project:
Predicting Outcomes of Treatment for Recurrent Hepatitis C in Post-Transplant Patients at KUMC
Organization/Location:
University of Kansas Medical Center
Adviser(s):
David Botstein, Anthony B. Evnin ‘62 Professor of Genomics. Professor of Molecular Biology and the Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics. Director, Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics

I interned at the Liver Center of the University of Kansas Medical Center. This leading transplantation center performed the first domino liver transplant in 2008. Hepatitis C is one of the most frequent indications for liver transplantation in the United States, and my project was on recurrent Hepatitis in post-transplant patients. I contributed to a working research paper by performing biostatistical analysis, sorting through patient records and gathering data in spreadsheets. The paper looked at bilirubin, a organic compound found in the blood, as a marker for progression of fibrosis following transplantation.

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Project:
Endemic Fluorosis in Rural Villages of Northeastern India
Organization/Location:

Adviser(s):
Peter Jaffe, Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering

I worked in a Civil and Environmental Engineering Lab here at Princeton, participating in a fluoride filtration project. I helped a graduate student to test various materials for their effectiveness as filter material. We experimented with several combinations of clay, flour, and hydroxyapatite and took measurements of their pH, surface area, and fluoride sorption. Although the work I was doing was physically removed from the villagers in India suffering from excess fluoride in their groundwater, I felt inspired to be a part of the process of intervention-development. We had to constantly evaluate our implicit assumptions regarding the sustainability of the filter in the context of the villagers’ relationships with one another and their limited material resources.

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Project:
Snake Hill: Mythologies, Medicines and Misunderstandings surrounding HIV in Rural South Africa
Organization/Location:
Zithulele Hospital, South Africa
Adviser(s):
João Biehl, Susan Dod Brown Professor of Anthropology. Co-Director, Program in Global Health and Health Policy and Peter Locke

Based at a rural hospital in South Africa, my research is focused on understanding the interaction between religion at the hospital and the treatment and recovery of patients who are HIV positive as well as how conceptions of religion affect interpretations of health care and HIV stigma. Patients grapple with disease and suffering, negotiating different descriptions of the world given by traditional African religion and Christianity. Many patients associate the hospital with Christianity and their recovery on ARVs with the work of God. Religion is important to many of the hospital staff too, with nurses and patients gathering each morning to sing hymns and pray. The ARV roll-out at the hospital has been successful, with over 2000 people on ARVs, yet stigma around HIV persists and the hospital wards remain filled with gaunt patients infected with TB and HIV.

Project:
Resources for the Future
Organization/Location:

Adviser(s):
Ramanan Laxminarayan, Associate Research Scholar, Princeton Environmental Institute

I interned in Washington, DC, at the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics, and Policy (CDDEP), a branch of environmental economics think tank Resources for the Future. In addition to assisting with ongoing projects at CDDEP, I conducted an independent research project on the correlation between pollution levels and hospitalizations in Taiyuan City, China. I am continuing the project as my senior thesis this coming year.

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Project:
Kubadilisha Tabi: Facilitating Positive HIV Behavior Change through Theatre in Nakuru, Kenya
Organization/Location:
REPACTED, Kenya
Adviser(s):
Mahiri Mwita, Lecturer in Princeton Institute for International and Regional Studies. Bryan T. Grenfell, Director, Health Grand Challenge Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Public Affairs, Woodrow Wilson School, Kristina M. Graff

I interned in Nakuru, Kenya at REPACTED, a community-based organization that uses theatre as a medium of outreach to bring about behavior change in the community regarding issues in sexual health. Through its outreaches, REPACTED both challenges misconceptions about sexually transmitted diseases and encourages members in the community to be proactive in preventing such diseases. I, along with a fellow Princeton student Derek Gideon, completed surveys of the target audience in an attempt to analyze the effectiveness of these outreaches in actually effecting behavior change. We are currently writing a report based on the collected data.

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Project:
Infanta Malaria Prevention Foundation
Organization/Location:
Infanta Malaria Prevention Foundation, Accra, Ghana
Adviser(s):
Lois Okudzeto, The Infanta Malaria Prevention Foundation

I interned in Accra, Ghana, with the Infanta Malaria Prevention Foundation, an NGO that works to prevent and treat malaria in children and pregnant women, the most vulnerable populations to malaria. We performed a variety of tasks for the foundation, including several outreach programs. We tested women and children for malaria and provided medicine to those who tested positive. We also distributed insecticide-treated bed nets for malaria prevention. In addition to the outreach programs, we shadowed doctors in the pediatric ward of a public hospital in Accra. We also worked on a project for the Grameen Foundation developing short messages about malaria to be incorporated into a health text message alert system.

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Project:
Seasonality of Antibiotic Prescriptions and Resistance
Organization/Location:
Ramanan Laxminarayan, Associate Research Scholar, Princeton Environmental Institute
Adviser(s):


I worked at Resources for the Future in Washington, DC, where I did statistical research on national datasets of antibiotic prescription and antibiotic resistance data. I used Stata to perform my work, and did a literature review to gather data for my project. I looked at antibiotic resistance of various bacteria including E. coli, S. aureus, and Enterococci. This work was for my senior thesis. At the end of the internship I presented my results, which found that antibiotic prescriptions peak in the winter, and antibiotic resistance also peaks in the winter, a few months afterward.

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Project:
The Global Fund: A Look at Health Systems Strengthening
Organization/Location:
The Global Fund, Switzerland
Adviser(s):
Kristina Graff, Associate Director, Center for Health and Wellbeing, Woodrow Wilson School

I interned at The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (TGF). Since its creation in 2002 TGF has committed nearly $20 billion to health programs worldwide. My summer project was a qualitative summary of TGF’s contributions to health systems strengthening. I read through all proposals in funding rounds 8 and 9 that were approved for health systems strengthening funding. I summarized the type of intervention that was funded and coded for several other factors. At the conclusion of the internship I produced an excel spreadsheet with a summary of all of my results and delivered a PowerPoint presentation to my department. During the summer I also took a French course at The Global Fund, visited the United Nations for a presentation, and attended many guest lectures and information sessions.

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Project:
Nutrition Scarcity and HIV/AIDS Education in South Africa
Organization/Location:
Nkanyiso, South Africa
Adviser(s):
João Biehl, Susan Dod Brown Professor of Anthropology. Co-Director, Program in Global Health and Health Policy

I interned at Nkanyiso, a grassroots organization based in Johannesburg, South Africa that strives to address the pervasive problem of poverty in South Africa by providing comprehensive educational programs on HIV/AIDS, nutrition, and positive life skills. Nkanyiso focuses on HIV/AIDS education by incorporating practical prevention methods and specific knowledge on how to live with the disease – including a sustainable model of gardening and nutrition education that is integrated into schools. My internship responsibilities included helping to implement the garden programs, procuring grants, and researching and writing educational packets about the importance of nutrition assistance in response to HIV/AID.

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Project:
Nutrition Scarcity and HIV/AIDS Education in South Africa
Organization/Location:
Nkanyiso, South Africa
Adviser(s):
João Biehl, Susan Dod Brown Professor of Anthropology. Co-Director, Program in Global Health and Health Policy

I interned at Nkanyiso, a grassroots organization based in Johannesburg, South Africa that strives to address the pervasive problem of poverty in South Africa by providing comprehensive educational programs on HIV/AIDS, nutrition, and positive life skills. Nkanyiso focuses on HIV/AIDS education by incorporating practical prevention methods and specific knowledge on how to live with the disease – including a sustainable model of gardening and nutrition education that is integrated into schools. My internship responsibilities included helping to implement the garden programs, procuring grants, and researching and writing educational packets about the importance of nutrition assistance in response to HIV/AID.

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Development

Project:
I Vote Teach
Organization/Location:
Kiswahili Department, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Adviser(s):
Mahiri Mwita, Lecturer in Princeton Institute for International and Regional Studies

I interned with WAMATA, an AIDS homecare group; MAISHA, a newly-started microfinance team; and an English language teaching program to focus to the problem of foreign aid and the value of empowering citizens to change their circumstances. Originally, my internship was supposed to detail the public’s opinion of the change from socialism to capitalism, but in the end encompassed much more than political transition. I conducted interviews of many Tanzanians (from woodcarvers to business giants of AIDS prevention movements) about numerous topics including: their educational system; previous political regimes; past political leaders; current leaders; access to food; ; health standards and medical care; urban pollution; ; the role of women; their fears and hopes; and the overarching issue of the aftermath of socialist effects on a society trying to join the economic world in capitalism.I concluded that one can either give a country food, or teach a country to grow it. I vote teach.

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Project:
Transforming Society in Tanzania: From Socialist to Capitalist Development
Organization/Location:

Adviser(s):
Mahiri Mwita, Lecturer in Princeton Institute for International and Regional Studies

Throughout the summer, my internship and research highlighted the inextricable link between an explicitly health-related issue (HIV/AIDS) and development. In partnship with the African Evangelistic Enterprise, I conducted interviews and engaged in fieldwork that allowed me to explore the dynamics of the recent Tanzanian government policy of home-based care for HIV/AIDS victims. I also gained an understanding of how well NGO’s are able to meet the needs of HIV/AIDS victims and their families who are forced to care for them at home.

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Project:
Distribution of Carbon in the Kalahari Transect
Organization/Location:
Princeton University
Adviser(s):
Kelly Caylor, Assistant Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, and Frances O’Donnell, Graduate Student, Civil and Environmental Engineering

This project sought to understand the distribution and dynamics of belowground carbon in savannas. We worked on the Kalahari Transect in western Botswana at a series of research sites that span a rainfall gradient. Dry season (summer) field work included three major activities: 1) excavating and mapping the root systems of trees and woody shrubs to determine their mass, geometry, depth and lateral extent; 2) measuring ecosystem-level belowground biomass by sampling root biomass, collecting soil samples, and conducting surveys with a ground penetrating radar; and 3) measuring the response of soil CO2 flux to experimental wetting treatments. Doing this at four sites along a rainfall gradient allowed us to investigate how water availability influences the ecosystem carbon cycle.

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Project:
Alien Species in South African River Systems
Organization/Location:
Rhodes University
Adviser(s):
Daniel Rubenstein, Class of 1877 Professor of Zoology. Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. Director, Program in African Studies. Chair, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

I assisted with the investigation of alien species invasion in the river systems of South Africa. Particularly, we looked at invasive species of catfish and tilapia that had been introduced into a dammed river system and have spread rapidly throughout the region. The research centered around the Great Fish and Sundays Rivers in South Africa, whose ecosystems have been altered due to damming in the late 1970s and early 1990s. We also investigated the feeding and reproductive cycles of an indigenous fish species that appeared to be surviving the influx of new species, in the hope of identifying beneficial survival characteristics. The research was completed under the guidance of Professor Anthony Booth in the Department of Ichthyology and Fisheries Sciences at Rhodes, as well as Wilbert Kadye, a Ph.D. student under Professor Booth.

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Project:
Marine Conservation on Tanzania
Organization/Location:

Adviser(s):
Dan Rubenstein, Class of 1877 Professor of Zoology. Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. Director, Program in African Studies. Chair, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology.

In partnership with Frontier, a non profit conservation and development NGO to collect data for a project aimed at mapping aquatic life within the Mafia Island Marine Park on Mafia Island, Tanzania. The majority of the work involved conducting surveys of various species of reef fish, benthic organisms, and coral on the ocean floor. I also collected survey data for the mangrove forests and seagrass beds surrounding the bay. These surveys are one of the first initiatives being taken to collect information regarding the health and viability of the marine life in the Marine Park. The information will be used by local environmental and governmental organizations to educate the Mafia population about ways to effectively coexist with the rich aquatic life in the protected area.

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Project:
Marine Conservation in Tanzania
Organization/Location:
Frontier
Adviser(s):
Dan Rubenstein, Class of 1877 Professor of Zoology. Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. Director, Program in African Studies. Chair, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology.

Working for Frontier, a non profit conservation and development NGO, as a research assistant was an amazing experience. Over the summer, I helped to collect data that will be used to examine the effectiveness of the Marine Protected Area. The hope is that placing this area under protection has promoted an increase in biodiversity and abundance of marine populations. To investigate this hypothesis, I conducted underwater marine surveys of the quantity and types of reef fish, coral, and invertebrates on twenty-five meter transects. Along with diving to collect data on marine life, I helped collect date along extensive mangrove transects to examine the extent that local people are utilizing the trees and to provide a baseline for future analysis. From learning about marine ecology and survey techniques to interacting with the local community, I have gained so much through this program.

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Project:
Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Biodiversity in South Africa
Organization/Location:
Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University
Adviser(s):
Michael Oppenheimer, Albert G. Milbank Professor of Geosciences and International Affairs, Woodrow Wilson School. David Wilcove, Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Public Affairs, Woodrow Wilson School. Lyndon Estes.

I spent this summer working closely with a post-doctoral researcher in the Woodrow Wilson School researching the effects of climate change on crop yields and biodiversity in South Africa. This project focused on South Africa because it is an area with a large agricultural sector that is highly vulnerable to climate change. The main objective of the project is to understand how climate change will affect crop yields in the next century, as well as how human responses to climate change will influence South Africa’s biodiversity. My main responsibilities included preparing crop, soil, and weather data to use as inputs for modeling crop yields. I also worked to calibrate a crop modeling program and interpreted the results that the model produced. I am looking forward to and will be continuing this research into the semester.

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Project:
Development Problems in Capitalist Tanzania
Organization/Location:
Princeton University
Adviser(s):
Mahiri Mwita, Lecturer in Princeton Institute for International and Regional Studies

This summer I worked on a research project with Professor Aldin Mutembei revolving around development in Tanzania. We looked at one church called the Full Gospel Bible Fellowship, a born again Christian church, whose members opposed a specific government project to build high-tension power lines because they felt it interfered with their evangelism. Through this research we learned that there is a chasm between the way the government views development and the way the general public viewsdevelopment. The members of this church opposed the high tension power lines because they viewed spreading Christianity as more important than providing power, whereas the government disagreed. Whether this is a product of socialism, lack of education, disillusionment with government intervention, and/or foreign influence, we are not sure, but it is a problem worthy of further exploration with the goal offinding a solution. Mainly through newspaper research, we also investigated several underlying problems that may be leading to the resistance to and failure of various development efforts in the country.

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Project:
Adapting to Empowerment
Organization/Location:
Center for Community Initiatives, Homeless International, Tanzania
Adviser(s):
Mahiri Mwita, Lecturer in Princeton Institute for International and Regional Studies

Working with the Center for Community Initiatives (CCI), gave me the opportunity to experience different types of development strategies. I had the chance to structure and conduct interviews with slum dwellers on the impacts of participating in a savings and loans group and to learn about their challenges and successes with respect to planning and implementing community development projects. CCI introduced me to the exciting prospects of climate change adaptation. With representatives from the city government and other key NGOs, I helped to plan a forthcoming climate adaptation research project for the Dar es Salaam district. I also saw the innovative settlement where a group of slum dwellers bought land, conducted planning, and are now building houses, markets, schools, and recreation facilities. I interacted not only NGO workers from the non-profit Water AID and other government officials, I also had the opportunity to learn about the life stories of NGO workers from Tanzania and the ways they constantly adapt to the changing needs to best support the growth and empowerment of slum community groups.

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Project:
Distribution of Carbon in the Kalahari Transect
Organization/Location:
Princeton University
Adviser(s):
Kelly Caylor, Assistant Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Frances O’Donnell, Graduate Student, Civil and Environmental Engineering.

This project seeks to understand the distribution and dynamics of belowground carbon in savannas. During my summer internship, I worked on the Kalahari Transect in western Botswana, a series of research sites that span a rainfall gradient. This dry season (summer) field work included three major activities: 1)excavating and mapping the root systems of trees and woody shrubs to determine their mass, geometry, depth and lateral extent; 2)measuring ecosystem-level belowground biomass by sampling root biomass, collecting soil samples, and conducting surveys with a ground penetrating radar; and 3)measuring the response of soil CO2 flux to experimental wetting treatments. Doing this at four sites along a rainfall gradient enabled us to investigate how water availability influences the ecosystem carbon cycle.

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Project:
Improving Scientific Communication in the Developing World: International Water Management Institute, India
Organization/Location:
International Water Management Institute, India
Adviser(s):
Luisa Duarte-Silva

My project focused on evaluating scientific communication in the developing world. The organization I worked for, the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), is headquartered in Sri Lanka, and works in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Central Asia, and Africa. Along with another intern in India, and an intern in Ghana, we created a total of three reports (one India-specific, one Ghana-specific, and one general report) about how IWMI succeeds and fails in communicating its scientific products. In India, we studied the spread of an article, "Agriculture Miracle in Gujarat after 2000" by Drs. Tushaar Shah, Ashok Gulati and others while the student in Ghana studied the "Ghana Dams Dialogue Newsletter." During this eight-week internship, I conducted background research, created a survey, interviewed and created reports with the other interns. Each interview had two components - one discussing the interviewee's use and understanding of the article, and one discussing his/her use of the IWMI website. The interviews took place in Delhi, Faridabad, Ahmedabad, Gandhinagar, and Anand.

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Project:
The Grevy’s Zebra Project
Organization/Location:

Adviser(s):
Dan Rubenstein, Class of 1877 Professor of Zoology. Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. Director, Program in African Studies. Chair, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Under the guidance of Daniel Rubenstein, Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, I spent the majority of my internship in Kenya in Wamba, at an Earthwatch research center. During that time I conducted research on the Grevy Zebra which is an endangered species. Fewer than 2500 remain. As part of this research I walked line transects and conducted total counts from a vehicle on the Grevy's Zebra population in the area (animals considered competitors for food were also counted). I was also in charge of entering project data and for maintaining camp equipment.

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Project:
Alien Species in South African River Systems
Organization/Location:

Adviser(s):
Dan Rubenstein, Class of 1877 Professor of Zoology. Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. Director, Program in African Studies. Chair, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

I assisted Professor Tony Booth, Head of the Department of Ichthyology at Rhodes University, with three small research projects related to fish populations in the Eastern Cape region of South Africa. The first project we completed was to analyze a program for individual fish identification and to create an algorithm to optimize its results, which could then be used to estimate coelacanth population size. The second involved surveying river systems in the area to learn which fish were present and in which stage of life and to compare this data with that collected in the summer. The third project involved analyzing the impact of invasive catfish on invertibrate populations used as food by setting up cages in several different rivers and surveying the changes on a regular basis.

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Climate and Energy

Project:
Atmospheric Pollution Monitoring Research
Organization/Location:

Adviser(s):
Gerard Wysocki, Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering

The goal of this research project was to develop atmospheric pollution monitoring capability utilizing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology. There is an increased need for trace-gas sensing over large areas with high spatial and temporal resolution. To address this, there exist several technologies, with vehicular deployments gaining popularity. However, such deployments have high maintenance and ownership costs, for which low-cost UAVs would be a feasible solution. In Professor Wysocki's laboratory a new prototype of laserspectroscopic sensors have been developed in collaboration with the Mid-Infrared Technologies for Heath and the Environment (MIRTHE) Research Center to enable UAV monitoring of trace gases. During this eight week internship, I worked in a unique collaborative environment and was able to explore other environmental monitoring technologies developed by MIRTHE partners.

Project:
Experiments with Thalassiosira Weissflogii (TW) in Relation to Carbon Dioxide Concentrations
Organization/Location:
The Morel Group, Princeton University
Adviser(s):
Francois Morel, Albert G. Blanke, Jr., Professor of Geosciences. Yan Xu, Postdoctoral Research Associate, Geosciences

This summer I worked with the phytoplankton algae Thalassiosira weissflogii (TW) in order to study how the changing global environment, with increasing carbon dioxide concentrations, is affecting algae, the powerhouses of the ocean. TW cells are important because they are able to use a special enzyme called cadmium carbonic anhydrase (CDCA) to convert carbon dioxide into bicarbonate and vice versa. Higher carbon dioxide concentrations in the oceans, due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, result in a more acidic ocean (lower pH levels). Over the summer I did experiments to determine how these changes in pH and hence, carbon dioxide levels, affect the CDCA enzyme. I learned that higher pH levels (8.0+) mean a higher expression of the enzyme, while lower levels (7.7) result in a much lower expression of the enzyme. Another part of my research this summer was to try to isolate TW chloroplasts as a whole organelle without significant residual cell debris in order to see whether the CA enzyme was located in or outside of it. Over the summer I was able to accomplish this goal and have observed so far that CA activity does not seem to occur in the isolate but does occur in a whole cell solution.

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Project:
Dynamic Server Load Balancing Across Data Centers
Organization/Location:
Computer Science Department, Princeton University
Adviser(s):
Jennifer Rexford, Professor of Computer Science

During the summer I worked in the Computer Science Department at Princeton University as part of Professor Jennifer Rexford's research group. My internship project focused on developing an application that would dynamically load balance client requests across data centers in order to lower energy demands and costs. For the first half of the internship, we designed and implemented a load balancing algorithm that takes into account server position and usage when deciding which server must handle a certain client request. The algorithm tries to minimize the costs and the energy amount necessary to process the client request without sacrificing user-perceived performance. After performing the load balancing, I kept track of server usage and identified the servers which handled the least amount of client requests as part the second half of the project. These servers were then powered down and the client requests they were handling got redirected to a nearby server in order to lower the data center's energy consumption.

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Project:
Denitrification in Marine Sediment: An Unknown Environmental Feedback
Organization/Location:
Ward Lab, Princeton University
Adviser(s):
Bess Ward, William J. Sinclair Professor of Geosciences. Chair, Department of Geosciences

Using mesocosms (small simulated environments containing sediment and seawater) from Chesapeake Bay, we studied the effects of a simulated high organic material flux on the microbial communities living in the sediment. We focused on the response of the bacteria involved in classical denitrification, assessed whether the availability of organic material would favor anammox or denitrifiers, evaluated whether the sediment system could respond adequately to this unnaturally high supply of fixed nitrogen. My work to date has focused on collecting and analyzing daily water samples for various dissolved inorganic fixed nitrogen (DIN) species: ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite, as well as collecting and preparing samples for genetic and direct tracer experiments to determine the metabolic contribution of anammox and denitrifiers. While some results are still outstanding (I may revisit them on my Fall JP), using multiple box models we can draw some initial conclusions about how the microbial community responded. First, it appears that those mesocosms receiving a large influx of organic material showed higher denitrifier activity relative to anammox than did those receiving low treatments. Second, in all mesocosms, denitrifier activity appeared to lag behind anammox activity (which may be critical to the prevalence anammox bacteria given their slower growth rates relative to denitrifiers). Third, while our mesocosms were subjected to nitrogen loadings much greater than current or projected anthropogenic fluxes, microbial activity was able to acclimate relatively quickly indicating that continental shelf systems may be able to buffer future anthropogenic influxes from reaching the open ocean.

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Project:
Learning from the Past in Nuclear Physics
Organization/Location:

Adviser(s):
Rob Goldston, Professor of Astrophysical Sciences

The purpose of my internship was to study the history and development of nuclear fission in the mid-1900s and learn from both past triumphs and mistakes. Over the summer, I scoured Princeton libraries for information regarding different prototype reactors, such as the Boiling Reactor Experiment (BORAX) series at Argonne National Lab, looking for technical details as well as the purpose of the reactor itself. By examining the lessons learned in the past, items applicable to the present can be highlighted, helping the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) achieve it's mission of providing a workable fusion pilot plant.

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Project:
The Role of Zooplankton in the Sargasso Sea n Cycle: Developing Methodology for Zooplankton δ15N Fecal Pellet Analysis
Organization/Location:
Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (BIOS), Bermuda
Adviser(s):
Bess Ward, William J. Sinclair Professor of Geosciences. Chair, Department of Geosciences

My summer project attempted to elucidate the role of zooplankton in the Sargasso Sea nitrogen cycle. My personal contribution to this larger question was to develop and carry out a method to analyze the δ15N (in permil versus atmospheric N2 = {[15N/14N)sample/(15N/14N)atm] – 1} x 1000) of zooplankton fecal pellets. As fecal pellets constitute much of the export flux from the sunlit surface waters to the deep ocean (Urrere and Knauer, 1981; Angel, 1983), we might expect the δ15N of fecal pellets at depth to be similar to those found near the sea surface. Thus, by measuring the δ15N of fecal pellets, we are essentially creating a profile of the sinking flux in the Sargasso Sea. There is conflicting evidence regarding the δ15N of fecal pellets (particularly in reference to the food source and biomass of the zooplankton). At the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site (BATS; 31° 40’ N; 64° 10’ W), there is an observed discrepancy between the δ15N of the export flux of organic matter out of the surface ocean (δ15N = ~3 ‰; Altabet 1988) and the suspended particulate N (δ15N = -3 to 1‰; Altabet 1988, 1989; Fawcett et al. 2010 submitted). My project consequently seeked to help resolve the δ15N discrepancy and to “balance” the nitrogen isotope budget in the Sargasso Sea. Studying the marine nitrogen cycle has direct implications on the carbon cycle, particularly how much CO2 is sequestered in the depths of the ocean and consequently removed from the atmosphere.

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Project:
Source analysis and quantification of nitrogen deposition to the Sargasso Sea
Organization/Location:
Bermuda Institute for Ocean Sciences, Bermuda
Adviser(s):
Danny Sigman, Dusenbury Professor of Geological and Geophysical Sciences. Professor of Geosciences

The goal of this internship was to understand how anthropogenic nitrogen fixation affects nitrogen deposition in the North Atlantic Ocean. To this end, the internship consisted of three elements. First, rainwater and aerosol samples were collected at meteorological data stations at various locations in Bermuda. Second, the samples were analyzed using an ion chromatograph, an instrument that determines the concentration of specified ions within a sample. Third, the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) atmospheric modeling program of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) was used to determine the origin of the air masses that brought the rainwater and aerosols. The air masses were divided into two categories: those from the North American continent (containing anthropogenic nitrogen) and those from the surrounding ocean (containing biological nitrogen). Combining the data about air mass sources with the concentration data, the concentrations of anthropogenic nitrogen were compared with the concentrations of biological nitrogen. The results show that the nitrogenic ion averages weighted by volume were not different between anthropogenic and biological sources, whereas all other ions analyzed showed a significant difference between the two sources.

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Project:
Evaluation of the Electrical Characteristics of Thin-Film Solar Cells at United Solar Ovonics
Organization/Location:
United Solar Ovonics
Adviser(s):
Dr. Jeff Yang, United Solar Ovonic

At United Solar, rather than having one large project, I had several smaller ones, and contributed to many more. I ran several experiments on a solar simulator called the Spire in order to optimize its performance and also yield results that correspond more closely to the solar spectrum. I also established and wrote an operating procedure for the calibration of the Spire. I helped install twelve solar modules outside the Troy facility and developed a program to facilitate the download and analysis of data from the modules. I analyzed the performance of these experimental solar modules as well as other modules from the roof of the Auburn Hills facility under various conditions, including different irradiances, times, and shadow coverage. In addition to these, I helped employees of United Solar with their projects or tasks when they needed an extra pair of hands.

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Project:
Light Output Instability of Quantum Cascade Laser
Organization/Location:
MIRTHE Center, Princeton, NJ
Adviser(s):
Claire Gmachl, Professor of Electrical Engineering

Charge instability has long been a known problem in traditional lasers. While high profile quantum cascade (QC) lasers are assumed to be stable, strong light instability is still observed in QC lasers at high currents. Finding the potential periodic behaviors in the light instability will help eliminate this instability and achieve QC lasers with optimal gain. During my internship, my group developed a MATLAB program to remotely control a QC laser and monitor up to 5,000 sequential light pulses at a fixed pulsed current each time. The light pulses revealed how the light output looks like in real time and showed that there are likely quasi-periodic light instability behaviors. We chose the region of instability on each pulse as the gate region, and calculated the average power output in the gate region for each pulse. We used fast fourier transform (FFT) to find the frequency components buried in these “noisy” data. Through this process, we have found more frequencies than we expected, and our frequency data vary between measurements. We are currently collecting more data for different lasers and are focusing on multiple positions on a light pulse instead of one gate region to avoid missing any information.

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Project:
Design and Discovery of Optimal Molecular Scale Solar Antennas
Organization/Location:

Adviser(s):
Herschel Rabitz, Charles Phelps Smyth ‘16 *17 Professor of Chemistry

The optimization of solar collectors can be approached through computational methods for molecular property prediction. The ability to predict the properties of a molecule such as a solar collector decreases the amount synthesis and testing of molecules required to find those with the desired properties. Property prediction help determine which molecules are more likely to have the desired properties or be “active” and these can then be synthesized and tested. My internship focused on developing a method for property prediction which uses a training set of laboratory data to create a map and uses an input of reaction conditions to predict reaction yield.

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Project:
Identifying significant real-time traffic on OpenFlow
Organization/Location:
Computer Science, Princeton University
Adviser(s):
Jennifer Rexford, Professor of Computer Science

This summer, I worked in Professor Jennifer Rexford’s group in the Department of Computer Science on tools for monitoring traffic on computer networks. To this end, I developed a power-efficient algorithm for identifying "hierarchical heavy hitters" in real-time on a network using commercial hardware and commodity Ternary Content Addressable Memories (TCAMs). I then implemented the algorithm on OpenFlow, an open standard that allows researchers to run experimental protocols in production networks.

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Project:
Myth Busting: Debunking Climate Myths
Organization/Location:
Climate Central
Adviser(s):
Professor of Computer Science

During my internship at Climate Central, I read skeptic commentary and identified the top most common myths about climate change. I then debunked two of those myths by researching and writing scientific scripts and producing two short videos in Final Cut. I animated these videos in order to visually capture attention and creatively communicate the truth about these common myths: that snow storms mean global warming has stopped and that warming is not anthropogenic but caused by the sun.

Project:
Polymer Crystallization on Curved Surfaces
Organization/Location:
Loo Group, Princeton University
Adviser(s):
Lynn Loo

My internship in Professor Lynn Loo’s laboratory focused on organic solar cells. In previous work, it has been shown that substrates with curved surfaces can induce preferential alignment in phase separated polymer domains. Continuing this idea, my work this summer used buckled structures made of Norland Optical Adhesive (NOA) as a substrate with both mean and gaussian curvature. I crystallized poly(3-(2'-ethyl)-hexylthiophene) (P3EHT), which has a fibrillar structure, onto these structures and analyzed them using atomic force microscopy.

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Project:
Beacon Solar Energy Project
Organization/Location:
National Organization for Welbody, Sierra Leone
Adviser(s):
Mohammed Barrie

Our team of four Princeton students brought a 2kW solar power system to the Amputee Clinic in Koidu, Sierra Leone. We designed the system and worked with an NGO based in Freetown, Energy for Opportunity (EFO), to finalize the design and install it at the clinic. The system powers lights, fans, and power outlets in the clinic and will be supporting X-ray and ultrasound machines when they arrive at the clinic in the fall. We have trained clinic staff in basic maintenance of the system and hope that it will be effective for many years to come. The higher level of care that comes with having electricity to power diagnostic tools such as the X-ray and ultrasound will dramatically improve the quality of healthcare the people receive and hopefully diagnose problems when they are still easily treatable.

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Project:
Implementation of a 2 kW Solar Panel System
Organization/Location:
Global Action Foundation, Sierra Leone
Adviser(s):
Elsie Sheidler

This summer, I participated in the implementation of a 2 kW solar panel system at a rural health clinic in Kono, Sierra Leone, for the Global Action Foundation. My group worked in conjunction with Energy for Opportunity (EFO), an NGO that promotes solar energy projects, and with students from Sierra Leone's Government Technical Institute, who brought experience of actual installations.

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Project:
Designing and Optimizing a Multi-Stage Hydrogen Pump
Organization/Location:
Princeton University
Adviser(s):
Jay Benziger, Professor of Chemical and Biological Engineering

The hydrogen pump has been proposed as a separation process that optimizes the way in which we make clean fuel—hydrogen—from gasified coal. This process shows promise as an energetically efficient way of providing a higher purity fuel that can be used in a widespread range of applications. It may prove to be both a more efficient process and produce a higher purity yield than the conventional process of alkaline scrubbing. This summer, I joined members of Professor Jay Benzinger’s group in their efforts to confirm the hypothetical performance of a multi-stage hydrogen pump, build a program to analyze the performance and predict optimal parameters under which such a system should operate, and design a single-stage hydrogen pump to be used linearly in a multi-stage construction. Previous multistage designs were assembled and operated in order to study the effectiveness, efficiency, and durability of the process upon which we would improve. The ideal hydrogen pump would have a high energy efficiency, high extent of separation between hydrogen and carbon dioxide, and be ergonomic. We matched these criteria in our single-stage pump design and created a corresponding program that used experimentally determined parameters to return the most energetically efficient voltages at which each pump should operate.

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Project:
Solar Water Heating in USA
Organization/Location:
AltaTerra Research
Adviser(s):
Dr. Jon Guice, AltaTerra Research

As I looked for summer internship opportunities last winter, all I knew was that I wanted to follow my passion for renewable energy. AltaTerra Research is an industry analyst and market research company with its main office south of San Francisco, near Stanford. Working there allowed me to look at renewable energy from a non-engineering point of view and learn about the wider field of ‘green business.’ On my first day my supervisor gave me an overview of all the current projects that AltaTerra is involved in so that I could I decide which one I would like to focus on. At that point I knew that I made the right internship choice, because I had the opportunity to work on what I actually care about. I chose a project on solar water heating. In my fifth week I attended InterSolar North America, a conference on photovoltaic and solar thermal technologies. I interviewed solar water heating companies and got a more immediate perspective on the market than I could get just by doing research. In the last two weeks of my internship I consolidated all my work in a draft contributing to a report to be published within the next few months. Throughout my internship I also got to experience the dynamic and intimate working atmosphere of a small Silicon Valley company. Going to lunch everyday with the entire office was definitely one the highlights of my experience. We not only bonded professionally but got to know each other’s life outside of work as well.

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Project:
How Molecular Structure Influences Device Performance in Organic Solar Cells
Organization/Location:
Princeton University
Adviser(s):
Lynn Loo, Associate Professor of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Stephanie Lee

This summer while working in Professor Lynn Loo’s laboratory in the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, I tested fullerene derivatives for their usefulness in organic electronic applications. While organic solar cells are currently less efficient than silicon, their processing and physical characteristics make them an important area of material and energy research. My work involved incorporating the derivatives into solar cells, transistors, and single carrier diodes. Their properties could then be measured and compared. Over the course of the summer, I learned about gold/aluminum evaporation, lamination, and data analysis techniques among others. In my work, I found that the derivatives I worked with actually behaved very differently than predicted and most of my summer was spent investigating this discrepancy. In my final presentation I was able to explain why the reverse trend was observed and present some possibilities for how it could be fixed. The Loo group is an extremely supportive and welcoming lab, and I feel that I learned a great deal about the research process in addition to the topics I was investigating.

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Project:
Beacon Solar Energy Project
Organization/Location:

Adviser(s):


Our team of four Princeton students brought a 2 kW solar power system to the Amputee Clinic in Koidu, Sierra Leone. We designed the system and worked with an NGO based in Freetown, Energy for Opportunity (EFO), to finalize the design and install it at the clinic. The system powers lights, fans, and power outlets in the clinic and will be supporting X-ray and ultrasound machines when they arrive at the clinic in the fall. We have trained clinic staff in basic maintenance of the system and hope that it will be effective for many years to come. The higher level of care that comes with having electricity to power diagnostic tools such as the X-ray and ultrasound will dramatically improve the quality of healthcare the people receive and hopefully diagnose problems when they are still easily treatable.

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Project:
Research on Combustion in Gas Turbines and HCCL Piston Engines
Organization/Location:
University of California, Berkeley
Adviser(s):
Robert Dibble, UC Berkeley

I spent my Energy Grand Challenge internship investigating problems with wood gas filtration with Professor Robert Dibble at UC Berkeley. Wood gas is a renewable, sustainable, carbon-neutral fuel source that can easily be obtained by heating wood (without burning it) through a process called wood gasification. The gasification process releases wood gas along with tar and ash. Pure wood gas can be used to power gas turbines to generate electricity, but the process of purifying wood gas requires consumable solvents, which makes it extremely expensive. Last summer, I tested the idea that a silicon carbide diesel particulate filter—like those that catch soot in diesel cars and buses—could be used to filter tar and ash from wood gas. I hoped that because silicon carbide can withstand temperatures up to 2000˚C, it would be possible to burn the trapped tar and ash out of a clogged filter leaving the filter clean and fully functional. If the idea proved possible, it would eliminate the need for consumable solvents in the wood gas filtration process. The filter proved very effective in filtering tar and ash from wood gas, however the filter could not stand temperatures hot enough to oxidize waste ash. I determined that because the diesel particulate filter cannot be cleaned effectively, it is not a suitable replacement for current filtration systems.

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Project:
Characterization of organic bulk heterojunction and silicon nanowire solar cells
Organization/Location:
Palo Alto Research Center
Adviser(s):
Dr. Bob Street, Palo Alto Research Center (PARC)

The objective of my internship project was to characterize two types of non-traditionally structured solar cells – namely, organic bulk heterojunction cells and silicon nanowire cells. The organic solar cells, which were comprised of either a P3HT/PCBM blend or a PCDTBT/PC70BM blend, were fabricated at University of California – Santa Barbara. For these organic solar cells, which are attractive because of their low cost, low weight, and flexibility, a model was developed and experimentally tested to extract internal diode characteristics from experimentally measured photocurrent, which is affected by series resistance originating from various sources in the cell. In addition, the photoconductivity spectrum was measured to provide an estimate for the band offset of the heterojunction blend making up the cell. For the silicon nanowire solar cells, which were fabricated at PARC, photocurrent as a function of voltage and the photoconductivity spectrum were measured to determine whether the added morphology from the grown nanowires enhanced the performance of otherwise “conventional” amorphous silicon p-i-n solar cells.

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Project:
Fundamental Study of the Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer: Turbulence Exchange Processes over Ice Caps
Organization/Location:
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Gas Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton University
Adviser(s):
Alexander Smits, Eugene Higgins Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. Chair, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

As an intern in Professor Alexander Smits laboratory, I participated in a study of the spatial and temporal dynamics of coherent structures within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) with the aim of improving current climate models. Using the low-speed suction tunnel at Gas Dynamics Laboratory at the Princeton University Forrestal Campus, we attempted to produce a stably stratified turbulent boundary layer (the best way to model the atmospheric boundary layer) in our wind tunnel in order to look at coherent structures (vortices, hairpins) and study its mechanics. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) and hot-wire anemometry were used to gather data about the flow. Combined with pitot-static probe data, a full 2 dimensional vector field was produced for the flow in the stream-wise direction. Analysis of these vector fields was then carried out using MATLAB programs to look for said structures. I assisted in all parts of the research: setting up the experiment, calibrating equipment, operating the wind tunnel, writing code, and carrying out analysis.

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Project:
Biomass Delivered Costs for CBTL Plant in the Western United States
Organization/Location:
Princeton University
Adviser(s):
Eric Larson, Research Engineer, Princeton Environmental Institute

During my summer internship, I worked with Dr. Eric Larson to determine biomass availability and transportation costs to several proposed plant sites in the Western United States. The proposed plant would co-proccess coal and biomass to create liquid fuels (CBTL), and would require up to 300,000 bdt of biomass annually. Biomass availability was determined using the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) and Timber Product Outpuf (TPO) databases created by the Forest Service (USFS) to approximate annual removals and timberland conditions in areas surrounding a potential plant site. Transportation costs were calculated using a worksheet developed by Bob Rummer to approximate costs to fell, process, and haul material from timberland to the plant site. Rail transportation costs were also calculated using coal rates from the Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad. Based on these analyses I suggested placement for a CBTL plant near Missoula, MT.

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Project:
Investing in Renewable Energy- An Update on Barriers and Proposed Solutions
Organization/Location:
U.S. State Department, Office of Global Change
Adviser(s):
Barbara DeRosa-Joynt

As a U.S. State Department Intern in the Office of Global Change, I worked alongside U.S. climate negotiators researching a range of topics from carbon finance to deforestation to multi-lateral climate partnerships. Highlights of my experience included helping to facilitate the Department of Energy's first ever Clean Energy Ministerial, which brought energy heads of state from the top emitting countries to Washington D.C. to announce new clean energy initiatives; drafting the official office comments for the finance chapter of on a preliminary report on renewable energy by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; and creating a memo circulated among the directors of each office in the Oceans and Environmental Science Bureau that quantified the lifecycle carbon emissions associated with Canadian oil sands production.

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Project:
Hybrid Energy Storage Strategies for Alternative
Organization/Location:

Adviser(s):
Craig Arnold, Associate Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

If we assume that at some point in the future, photovoltaics will absorb sunlight with the highest theoretical efficiency, or that the world will harvest as much wind as is ecologically responsible and in a cost effective manner, a considerable issue remains when considering the sole reliance on almost any renewable energy source. Neither the supply of this energy nor the human demand for it are constant. Wind is the most dramatic example of this, as a roaring gale one minute can give way to a stale stillness the next, while the demand for power continues to fluctuate in a manner that is independent of the changes in the day’s pressure systems. Currently, energy storage is inefficient and expensive as it is needed to function in a stochastically-varying supply and demand setting and commonly relies on one storage device only. Devices with high-energy capacity per weight are generally inefficient under high currents, and vice versa. Hybrid storage, combining commercialized storage devices in a manner that exploits complementary properties, is an immediately feasible solution. This summer, I worked with Professor Craig Arnold to develop energy allocation control algorithms for hybrid energy storage, which exploit complementary device properties in learning to predict and provision for future energy supply and demand.

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Project:
Beacon Solar Energy Project for Sierra Leone
Organization/Location:
National Organization for Welbody
Adviser(s):


The Beacon Solar Energy Project in Sierra Leone was designed to help improve the care at an amputee clinic run by Dr. Bailor Barrie and the National Organization for Welbody (NOW) in the eastern Kono region. By installing solar panels, which eliminate the unsustainable costs of using a diesel generator, the clinic will be able to run more advanced medical equipment including an X-ray machine and an ultrasound machine, as well as provide care well into the night. The trip this summer successfully accomplished our dual goal of providing renewable energy for the clinic as well as inspiring dialogue and excitement over future uses of solar energy in Sierra Leone. For this project, we collaborated with the Sierra Leone-based NGO Energy For Opportunity (EFO). EFO was critical in helping with in-country logistics and providing significant technical insight into our designs. We also worked with three students from the Government Technical Institute who were enrolled in one of the country’s first renewable energy engineering programs and were able to gain hands-on experience through our project. EFO has volunteered to be the on-the-ground contact for future technical assistance with regard to the energy system. We left a fully functioning system, and will receive weekly reports on the system’s generation and the clinic’s consumption of energy. The system contains twelve 175W panels, eight 12V 225a/h batteries, an inverter, and a charge controller.

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Project:
Optimization of Thermal Properties of Quantum Cascade Lasers Through Modeling
Organization/Location:

Adviser(s):
Claire Gmachl, Professor of Electrical Engineering

Quantum Cascade (QC) lasers in sensor systems help us monitor the health of our environment through the detection of emissions that have optical spectra that are in the mid-infrared range. Because of the costly nature of the laser and the novelty of the approach, the laser is not widely used. For the laser to be more efficient, the thermal management and optical properties of waveguides need to be more closely examined. As an intern in Professor Claire Gmachl’s group in the Department of Electrical Engineering this summer, I helped to develop the models of the QC laser design on Comsol to unable the examination of the QC optical and thermal waveguide properties. We compared the differences in laser core temperature between dry etching and wet etching showing that a 1 µm shallow etch in dry etching is better by as much as 10 Kelvin than a 15 µm deep etch, and by only 1 Kelvin between a 1 µm shallow etch and a 15 µm deep etch in wet etching. In terms of a shallow etch, dry etching is better than wet etching by a several Kelvin. These comparisons are meant to determine which profile, wet or dry etched, has better thermal properties.

Project:
Joint US China Collaboration of Clean Energy (JUCCCE)
Organization/Location:
Joint US China Collaboration of Clean Energy (JUCCCE)
Adviser(s):
Elizabeth Campbell, JUCCCE. Lars Hedin, Director, Program in Environmental Studies Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and the Princeton Environmental Institute

During my internship, I shadowed the Chief of Staff of the Joint US-China Collaboration on Clean Energy (JUCCCE) to coordinate the China Energy Forum, the first public international energy conference co-hosted with a Chinese government agency. I also worked on the JUCCCE Energy Blueprint, a forthcoming web 2.0 site serving as a clearinghouse for cleantech projects happening on the ground in China. Moreover, I helped translate key marketing collateral to facilitate the bilingual communication and understanding of materials. Lastly, I helped maintain Social Media account in Chinese domains.